Required Competencies for Teaching in the 21st Century at the Intermediate and Secondary Cycle, By Antoine Tohme
This study focuses on the shift in the educational paradigm from teaching to learning. The study discusses the competencies needed to professionalize and qualitatively improve teaching in response to the challenges of the future. The study then identifies the competencies of the Intermediate and Secondary school teacher proceeding from the general teacher preparation objectives in these two cycles, and from the fundamental constituents of the teacher preparation curriculum, taking into account the teaching-learning process. The study then discusses the main competencies: knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Futuristic trends in forming the competencies necessary for teaching are discussed, by addressing the problematic relationship between research on teaching/learning, and teacher preparation. Then by addressing the problematic effectiveness of teaching when based on previous planning and thus safely but mechanically implemented; and finally, by addressing pre-service teacher preparation, in-service training, and sustainable training. The study ends by presenting a model to which Intermediate and Secondary school teachers at the threshold of the 21st century must adhere, to form their professional identity, and to ensure full commitment to their responsibilities in developing human capital and creating the future.